Tutorial on Knowledge Markup Techniques

Version 25-Apr-01


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Table of contents

Tutorial on Knowledge Markup Techniques

Overview and Tutorial Mindmap

Extensible Markup Language

General Advantages of XML for KR

Specific Advantages of XML for KR

Address Example: External to HTML

Address Example: HTML to XML

Address Example: XML to External

Address Example: XML to XML

Address Example: Some Stylesheets Will Contain Term-(Tree-)Rewriting Rules

Address Example: XML Queries

Address Example: Prolog Queries

Address Example: The Element Tree

Address Example: Document Type Definition and Tree (1)

Address Example: Document Type Definition and Tree (2)

Well-Formedness and Validity

Mail-Box Example: Address Variant

"|"-Disjoined Street/Mail-Box Example: Document Type Definition and Tree

Phone & Fax Example: Address Variant

"+"/"*"-Repetitive-Phone & -Fax Example: Document Type Definition and Tree

Country Example: Address Variant

"?"-Optional-Country Example: Document Type Definition and Tree

Country Address: A Complete XML Document Referring to an External DTD

Horn Logic Markup Languages

Herbrand Terms: Individual Constants, Variables, Flat Ground Structures, ...

Herbrand Terms: ..., Nested Ground Structures

Interim Discussion: Tag and Type

Horn Clauses: Relation Symbol Applications

Horn Clauses: Facts

Horn Clauses: Rules

Attributes for Extended Logics

ID and IDREF

ID and IDREF

DTDs: Elements as Derivation Trees

DTDs: Defining Horn Logic in XML

DTDs: Generation of the Example Rule (1)

DTDs: Generation of the Example Rule (2)

Attribute DTDs (1)

Attribute DTDs (2)

Horn Queries in XML Notation

Horn Queries in XML-QL Implementation

Horn Inferences in XML Notation (1)

Horn Inferences in XML Notation (2)

Horn Inferences in XML Notation (2)

Horn Inferences in XML Notation (2)

Horn Inferences in XML Notation (2)

Horn Inferences: SLD-Resolution, XML-QL Implementation, Open World

Relational-Functional Markup Language

A 10-Step Strategy to Publish and Reuse Declarative Programs as XML Markups

Cross-Fertilizations of XML and Declarative Programming Languages

Basics of the Relational-Functional Markup Language RFML

Relational Facts: From Tables to Prolog

Relational Facts: From Prolog to RFML

Relational Rules: From Prolog to RFML

Functional Facts: From Unconditional Equations to RFML

Functional Queries: Joint Assertion and Query Language

Functional Rules: From Conditional Equations to Relfun

Functional Rules: From Relfun to RFML

Relational-Functional Computations: “What Items John Buys, and How”

Relational-Functional Computations: “What Items John Buys, and How”

Relational-Functional Computations: “What Items John Buys, and How”

Relational-Functional Computations: “What Items John Buys, and How”

Relational-Functional Computations: “What Items John Buys, and How”

The RFML DTD (1)

The RFML DTD (2)

RFML Summary

Simple HTML/XML Ontology Extensions

SHOE Basics

Instances (Individuals) as URLs/URIs

A SHOE Rule

XML-Based Ontology Exchange Language

XOL: XML-based Ontology Exchange Language (by Peter Karp, Vinay Chaudhri, Jerome Thomere, SRI)

Essential Form of an XOL File

Module-Header Definition

Class Definition

Slot Definition

Individual Definition

XML Namespaces

XML Namespaces and Programming-Language Modules

Namespace Bindings

Namespaceless Example: Address Variant

Two-Namespace Example: Snail-Mail and Telecoms Address Parts

Acquiring and Processing Knowledge Markups

Acquiring and Processing Knowledge Markups

Acquiring XML Knowledge Bases

Protégé-2000 as an XML Editor

Knowledge-Base Development with Protégé-2000

Protégé as an OKBC-Compliant System (Open Knowledge Base Connectivity)

XML Import Strategy

Example (Import): Book Order

XML Export Strategy

Example (Export): Newspaper Instances

Example: Newspaper Ontology As XML Tree

Processing XML

Cascading Style Sheets

XSLT (XSL Transformations)

XSLT Example – Input

XSLT Example – Stylesheet

XSLT Example – Output

XQL and XPath

XQL Expressions 1

XQL Expressions 2

XQL Expressions 3

XML-QL

XML-QL Example 1

XML-QL Example 2

XML-Based Agent Techniques

XML-based Agent Techniques

The FRODO Agent Framework

Involved XML Technologies

Agents Communicate Via XML Messages

Message Exchange is Based on Internet Techniques

Simple Integration of Foreign Software Components is Enabled

Ontobroker Application

Ontobroker/On2broker (AIFB/University of Karlsruhe)

Example Ontology

Annotated HTML Pages

Ontobroker Query Tool

Resource Description Framework

PPT-Folie

Outline

Why The Shift Towards More Semantics?

Extensible Markup Language (XML) Revisited

Why XML is Not Enough

Encoding of Knowledge: Example

Point to Point Communication for Machine-Understandable Data

Many Previously Unknown Communication Partners

New Partners Don’t Understand Each Other

Merging Steps Between Models

Merging/Aligning Models

Postulates: Fundamental Requirements for KR on the Web

Introduction to RDF

RDF Data Model

A Simple Example

Another Example

Collection Containers

Example: Bag

Example: Alternative

Statements About Statements (Requirement 2: Dispute Statements)

Example: Reification

A Formal Model of RDF

Formal Model of RDF II

RDF Syntax I

Resulting Graph

RDF Syntax II: Syntactic Varieties

RDF Schema (RDFS)

Most Important Modeling Primitives

RDF-Schema: Example

Example: RDF-Schema in RDF-Schema

Extensibility of RDF

Ontology Languages on Top of RDF: The Principle

The Semantic Web

DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML): An Information Foodchain Based on RDF

RDF-Resources

Open Issues of RDF

PPT-Folie

Acknowledgements

References

References

References

References

Author: Harold Boley, Stefan Decker, and Michael Sintek

E-Mail: {sintek,boley}@dfki.uni-kl.de, stefan@db.stanford.edu

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